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A List of 
Phyla, Classes, and Orders 


Prepared for 

Section F 

American Association for the Advancement 
of Science 




Durham, North Carolina 

Duke University Press 


A List of 
Phyla, Classes, and Orders 


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Prepared Jor 

Section F 

American Association for the Advancement 
of Science 

Durham, North Carolina 

Duke University Press 


American zoological writers who have put)lished books or scientific papers during the 
past decade show little uniformity in their reference to larger groups of animals. Of 
course no zoologist wishes to be limited in the choice of names which seem to be most 
appropriate ; no one wishes to have imposed on him terms which he is ordered to use ; and 
none desires to have nomenclature become fixed and inflexible. Of all the rewards that 
Science gives to her retainers those most prized and enjoyed are independence and the 
right to change old dogmas as soon as the discovery of new truths makes them illogical. 
Yet because the species of animals now number several hundreds of thousands, the sorting 
of species into groups must necessarily be continually more accurate and critical. 
Furthermore, there are men who through ignorance, inertia, or bigotry take little or no 
cognizance of the progress of current scientific evidence and opinion. For example, cer- 
tain writers of recent textbooks use such old terms as Annulata and Anura when the 
most thoughtful and competent students of annelids and amphibians agree that Annelida 
and Salientia are to be preferred. Dr. R. E. Snodgrass, who has recently studied the 
anatomy of onychophorans in detail, is convinced that these animals cannot be called 
arthropods because their muscular systems have quite different relations to nervous 
structures from those which obtain in arthropods. Dr. J. P. Moore does not believe that 
onychophorans may be included among annelids. There seems to be no alternative but 
to set off Onychophora as a group by itself. 

Those who know animals and their classifications in detail perhaps may enjoy using 
various names for the same group and delight in thus displaying their technical knowledge, 
but a novice who refers to two or three textbooks and finds the same group called by 
two or three names is greatly confused. In an attempt to bring about greater uniformity 
and more careful selection in the use of zoological group names the writer was authorized 
to form an informal committee and to prepare a list of phyla, classes, and orders of 
animals which would represent current good usage. This action was taken by Section F 
of the American Association for the Advancement of Science at the Boston Meeting ; 
December. 1933. 

Since then many persons who appeared to be interested have been consulted. The 
following gave advice in connection with the groups mentioned: 

Invertebrata: A. H. Clark, B. G. Chitwood, Roy Miner, L. E. Noland, H. S. Pratt, 
Waldo Schmitt, H. J. Van Cleave. 

Protozoa : L. E. Xolaiid. and forty-odd protozoologists to wIkjui he sent a question- 

Porifera: H. V. Wilson. 

Coelenterata : EIi::abcth Dcicluuann (except Zoantharia). 

Aschelminthes: B. G. Chitivood, M. C. Hall. 

Platyhelminthes : E. B. Price. 

Cestoda : G. R. La Rue. 

Nemertea : W. R. Coe. 

Nemathelminthes : B. G. Chitivood, (j. Steiner. 

Acanthocephala : H. J. Van Cleave. 

Bryozoa : R. S. Bossier. R. C. Osburn. 

Echinodermata : A. H. Clark, H. L. Clark. E. Kirk. 

Brachiopoda : G. A. Cooper. 

Enteropneusta : W. E. Ritter. 


Annelida: J. P. Moore, A. L. Treadwell. 

Arthropoda: H. E. Ewing, R. E. Snodgrass. 

Crustacea: E. A. Birge, Norma C. Furtos, H. A. Pilsbry, Mary J. Ratlibun, Waldo 

Schmitt, J. P. Visscher, C. B. Wilson. 
Pycnogonidia : L. J. Coir. 
Arachnida : H. E. Ezving. 

Insecta: C. L. Kennedy, Z. P. Mclcalf. J. G. Needham. H. G. Barber, H. E. Ewing. 
Mollusca: P. Bartsch, H. Rehdcr. 
Chordata : C. W. Gilmorc, W. K. Gregory. 
Tunicata : W. E. Rittcr, W. G. Van Name. 
Pisces : W. K. Gregory, C. L. Hubbs, W. G. Myers. 
Amphibia : Helen T. Gaige, G. K. Noble. 
Reptilia: Helen T. Gaige, G. K. Noble. 
Aves : A. Wetmore. 
Mammalia: L. R. Dice, C. W. Gilmore, Remington Kellogg. 

Those whose names appear in italics furnished essentially the terms that appear in the 
following pages. While the writer gladly acknowledges the obligation to those persons 
and appreciates greatly the work they did, they are not to be held responsible for the 
pubhshed list. The differences of opinion among zoologists in the United States were 
found to be so great that there was little hope of agreement and the editor finally did 
what seemed to him best. 

Perhaps forty per cent of those consulted strongly urged the use of uniform endings 
for the larger groups of animals. The difficulty encountered in this connection was that 
protozoologists, helminthologists, conchologists, ornithologists, etc. had already moved 
more or less in the direction of uniformity and each group of specialists had a tendency 
to adopt a dififierent system. After long consideration the editor has used the system in 
vogue among protozoologists and students of some other groups, as it seemed to be at 
present more generally in use than any other. The endings are as follows : Phylum and 
Subphylum, — a; Class, ~ea; Subclass, — ia ; Order, — ida ; Suborder, — ina. In presenting 
this report to Section F it is not supposed that uniform endings shall be adopted as official, 
or even recommended. The zoological world had perhaps best be left to make its own 
choice. In the list the names in the first column represent what the editor after con- 
sultation believes to be best current usage ; those in the second column are what a few 
zoologists would like to .see used, but perhaps in presenting these the editor is "a hundred 
years ahead of his time." In any attempt to attain uniformity dilficulties arise. For 
example. Dr. Steiner points out that two names suggested as suborders under Nematoda 
are objectionable because identical names already have good standing as genera in the 
same group (Rliabditina Cobb 1922, Chromadorina Filipjev 1926). 

Another matter about which there is wide disagreement is whether there should be 
few or many groups — the old controversy between "lumpers" and "splitters." Shall there 
be ten or thirty phyla, or orders of insects? The position has been taken that it is more 
truthful, and therefore more scientific, to present many groups; otherwise it is necessary 
to compromise to the extent of grouping things together which have remote or insig- 
nificant relationships. To the objection that students cannot be expected to master such 
a long list of technical jargon there is only one answer. It is better to tell students part 
of the truth frankly than to falsely affirm that they are learning a complete and simple 
story. Biology is not always simple and clear. It therefore seems proi>er to say to a 
student in an elementary course, "of the thirty-odd phyla of animals, or orders of insects, 
only ten or a dozen which arc of particular biological significance to you will be studied," 
rather than, "f<»r convenience and simplicity all animals, or all insects, are presented 
under ten phyla, or orders, which may be easily remembered." Science is truth. 


Classification must he expected to grow more complex as knowledge increases and 
becomes more critical. 

In most groups the authors names and the dates following correctly indicate when a 
particular scientific name was given to a group, but these should be used with caution 
for in cases where no specialist could be found to furnish accurate information (birds, 
fishes, etc.), the editor browsed through systematic works and found such information, 
some of which later proved to be incorrect. For example, some references credited to 
Lamarck by various writers are for vernacular names which should have no scientific 
standing as scientific names. The following groups have been carefully corrected by 
specialists and are believed to be reliable for authors and dates : Protozoa, Porifera, 
Coelenterata (except Zoantaria), Platyhelminthes, Nemertea, Acanthocephala, Nematoda, 
Bryozoa, Brachiopoda, Echinodermata, Annelida, Arachnida, Crustacea, Insecta, Tuni- 
cata, Amphibia, Reptilia, and Mammalia; other groups may not be. 

A. S. Pe.\rsf.. Editor. 
Duke University. 
June 1, 1936. 


A List of Phyla, Classes, and Orders 

Extinct groups are indicated by an asterisk (*). 

Kingdom Animalia Linnaeus 1758 Animalia 

Subkingdom Protozoa Goldf us 1820 Protozoa 

Phylum Protozoa Goldf us 1820 Protozoa 

Subphylum Plasmodroma Doflein 1901 Plasmodroma 

Class Mastigophora Diesing 1866 Mastigophorea 

(Flagellata Cohn 1853) 

Subclass Phytomastigophora Calkins 1909 Phytomastigophoria 

Order Chrysomonadida Stein 1878 Chrysomonadida 

Order Heterochlorida Pascher 1912 Heterochlorida 

Order Cryptomonadida Stein 1878 Cryptomonadida 

Order Dinoflagellida Biitschli 1885 Dinoflagellida 

Order Euglenida Blochmann 1895 Euglenida 

Order Chloromonadida Klebs 1893 Chloromonadida 

Order Phytomonadida Blochmann 1895 Phytomonadida 

Subclass Zoomastigophora Calkins 1909 Zoomastigophoria 

Order Pantostomatida Minchin 1912 Pantostomatida 

Order Protomastigida Klebs 1893 Protomastigida 

Order Polymastigida Klebs 1893 Polymastigida 

Order Hypermastigida Grassi 1895 Hypermastigida 

Class Sarcodina Hertwig and Lesser 1874 Sarcodinea 

Subclass Rhizop(xla Von Siebold 1845 Rhizopodia 

Order Amnebida Claparede and Lachmann 

1858 Amoebida 

Order Proteomyxa Lankester 1909 Proteomyxida 

Order Testacea Max Schultze 1854 Testacida 

Order Foraminifera D'Orbigny 1826 Foraminiferida 

Order Mycetozoa De Bary 1859 Mycetozoida 

Subclass Actinopoda Calkins 1926 Actinopodia 

Order Heliozoa Haeckel 1866 Heliozoida 

Order Radiolaria Johannes Miiller 1858 Radiolarida 

Class Sporozoa Leuckart 1879 Sporozoea 

Subclass Telosporidia Schaudinn 1900 Telosporidia 

Order Gregarinida Lankester 1866 Gregarinida 

Order Coccidiomorpha Doflein 1901 Coccidiomorphida 

Suborder Coccidia Leuckart 1879 Coccidina 

Suborder Haemosporidia Danilewsky 1886 Haemosporina 

Subclass Cnidosporidia Doflein 1901 Cnidosporidia 

Order Myxosporidia Biitschli 1880 Myxosporida 

Order Actinomyxidia Stole 1899 Actinomyxida 

Order Microsporidia Balbiani 1883 Microsporida 

Subclass Sarcosporidia Balbiani 1882 Sarcosporidia 

Order Sarcosporidia Balbiani 1882 Sarcosporidia 

Order Globidia Bubudieri 1932 Globidiida 

Subclass Haplosporidia Caullery & Mesnil 

1899 Haplosporidia 


Subphylum Ciliophora DoflL'iii 1901 Cilidphora 

Class Ciliata Perty 1852 Ciliatea 

Subclass Protociliata Mctcaif 1918 Protociliatia 

Order Opalinata Stein 1867 Opalinida 

Subclass Riiciliata Metcalt 1918 Euciliatia 

Order Holotricbida Stein 1859 Holotrichida 

Suborder Gymnostomina Biitscbli 1889 Gymnostomina 

Suborder Trichostomina Biitschli 1889 Trichostomina 

Suborder Astomina Minchin 1912 Astomina 

Order Spirotrichida Biitschli 1889 Spirotrichida 

Suborder Heterotrichina Stein 1859 Heterotrichina 

Suborder Oligotrichina Biitschli 1889 Oligotrichina 

Suborder Tintinnoina Claparede and 

Lachmann 1858 Tintinnoina 

Suborder Entodiniomorphina Rciclmow 

1929 Entodiniomorphina 

Suborder Hypotrichina Stein 1859 Hypotrichina 

Order Peritrichida Stein 1859 Peritrichida 

Order Chonotrichida Wallengren 1896 Chonotrichida 

Class Suctoria Claparede and Lachmann 1858 Suctorea 

Subkingdom Metazoa Haeckel 1877 Metazoa 

Branch Parazoa Sollas 1884 Parazoa 

Phylum Porifera Grant 1835 Porifera 

Class Calcarea Bowerbank 1864 Calcarea 

Order Homocoela Polejaeff 1883 Homocoelida 

Order Heterocoela Polejaeff 1883 Heterocoelida 

Class Noncalcarea Vosmaer 1887 Noncalcarea 

Order Myxospongida Dendy 1905 Myxospongida 

Order Hexactinellida O. Schmidt 1870 Hexactinellida 

Suborder Amphidiscophora F. E. Schulze 

1899 Amphidiscophorina 

Suborder Hexasterophora F. E. Schulze 

1899 Hexasterophorina 

Order Tetraxonida Dendy 1905 Tetraxonida 

Suborder Homosclerophora Dendy 1905 Homoscleropherina 

Suborder Astrophora Sollas 1888 Astrophorina 

Suborder Hadromerina Topsent 1898 Hadromerina 

Suborder Sigmatophora Sollas 1888 Sigmatopherina 

Suborder Halichondrina Vosmaer 1887 Halichrondrina 

Suborder Lithistida O. Schmidt 1870 Lithistidina 

Order Keratosa Grant 1861 Keratosida 

Branch Enterozoa Lankester 1878 Enterozoa 

Subbranch Enterocoela Lankester 1900 Enterocoela 

Phylum Coelenterata Leuckart 1848 Coelenterata 

Subphylum Cnidaria Milne Edwards & Haime 1857. . .Cnidara 

Class Hydrozoa Huxley 1857 Hydrozoea 

Order Hydroida Leuckart 1857 Hydroida 

Order Trachylina Haeckel 1877 Trachylida 

Order Milleporina Hickson 1899 Milleportda 

Order Stylasterina Hickson 1899 Stylasterida 


Order Siphonophora Eschscholtz 1829 Siphonophorida 

Suborder Calycophorae Leuckart 1854 Calycophorina 

Suborder Rhizophysaliae Chun 1882 Rhizophysalina 

Suborder Chondrophorae Chamisso & 

Eysenhard 1821 Chondrophorina 

Class Scyphozoa Grobben 1910 Scyphozoea 

Order Lucernariidea Johnston 1847 Lucernarida 

Order Charybdeidea Gegenbaur 1856 Charybdida 

Order Corona Vanhoffen 1892 Coronida 

Order Semastomeae L. Agassiz 1862 Semastomida 

Order Rhizostomeae Cuvier 1799 Rhizostomida 

Class Anthozoa Ehrenberg 1834 Anthozoea 

Subclass Alcyonaria Milne-Edwards & 

Haime 1857 Alcyonaria 

Order Stolonifera Hickson 1883 Stolonif erdia 

Order Telestacea Hickson 1930 Telestacida 

Order Alcyonacea Verrill 1866 ". Alcyonacida 

Order Gorgonacea Verrill 1866 Gorgonacida 

Suborder Pseudaxonia Koch 1878 Pseudaxonina 

Suborder Axifera Koch 1873 Axif erina 

Order Coenothecalia Bourne 1900 Coenothecalida 

Order Pennatulacea Verrill 1866 Pennatulacida 

Subclass Zoantharia Blainville 1830 Zoantharia 

Order Cerianthidea Mihie-Edw. & Haime 1857 Cerianthida 

Order Antipitharia Dana 1846 Antipithida 

Order Zoanthidea Dana 1846 Zoanthida 

Order Edwardsiidea R. Hertwig Edwardsiida 

Order Proactiniae McMurrich Proactinida 

Order Actiniaria McMurrich Actiniarida 

Suborder Protanthia Carlgren Actiinina 

Suborder Nynanthia Stichodactxlinina 

Order Madreporaria Linnaeus 1748 Madreporerarida 

Suborder Aporosa Milne-Edw. & Haime 1857 Aporosina 

Suborder Eungacea Milne-Edw. & Haime 

I 1857 Fungacina 

Suborder Perforata Milne-Edw. & Haime 

1857 Perforina 

Subphylum Acnidaria Krumbach 1925 Acnidara 

Class Tentaculata Wagner 1834 Tentaculatea 

Order Cydippidea Lesson 1843 Cydippida 

Order Lobata Eschscholtz 1829 Lobatida 

Order Cestoidea Lesson 1843 Ccstida 

Order Platyctenea Bourne 1900 Platyctenida 

Class Nuda Bourne 1900 Nudea 

Order Beroidea Eschscholtz 1929 Reroida 

Subbranch Triploblastica Lankester 1900 Triploblastica 

Enterocoela Lankester 1876 Enterocoela 

Series Parenchymata Parenchymata 

Phylum Platyhelminthes Gegenbaur 1859 Platyhelmintha Vogl 1851 

Class Turbellaria Ehrenberg 1831 Turbellarea 

Order Acoela Uljanin 1870 Acoelida 


Order Rhabdocoela Ehreiiberg 1831 Rhabdocoelida 

Order Alloecoela Graff 1882 Alloecoelida 

Order Tricladida Ehrenberg 1831 Tricladida 

Order Polycladida Lang 1882 Polycladida 

Order Temnocephalida Haswell 1888 Temnocephalida 

Class Treinat(xla Rudolpbi 1808 Trcmatodea 

Subclass Monogenea Cams 1863 Moiiogenia 

Order Monopisthocotylea Odhiier 1912 Moiiopisthocotylida 

Order Polyopisthocotylea Odhner 1912 Polyopisthocotylida 

Subclass Digenea Carus 1863 Digenia 

Order Gasterostomata Odbuer 1905 Gasterostomatida 

Order Prosostomata Odhner 1905 Prostotnatida 

Suborder Aspidocotylea Burmeister 1856 Aspidocotylina 

Suborder Monostomata Zeder 1800 Monostomatina 

Suborder Strigeidea La Rue 1926 Strigeina 

Suborder Amphistomata Rudolphi 1801 Amphistomatina 

Suborder Distomata Leuckart 1856 Distomatina 

Class Cestoidea Rudolphi 1808 Cestodea 

Subclass Cestodaria Monticelli 1892 Cestodaria 

Order Amphilinidea Poche 1922 Amphilinida 

Order Gyrocotylidea Benhani 1901 Gyrocotylida 

Subclass Cestoda van Beneden 1849 Cestodia 

Order Pseudophyllidea van Beneden 1850 Pseudophyllida 

Order Tetraphyllidea Schmarda 1871 Tetraphyllida 

Order Cyclophyllidea Braun 1900 Cyclophyllida 

Glass Nemertea Siebold and Stannius 1842 Nemertea 

Order Paleonemertea Hubrecht 1879 Paleonemertida 

Order Heteronemertea Burger 1892 Heteronemertida 

Order Hoplonemertea Hubrecht '1879 Hoplonemertida 

Suborder Polystilifera Brinkmann 1917 Polystiliferina 

Suborder Monostilifera Brinkmann 1917 Monostiliferina 

Order Bdellonemertea Verrill 1892 Bdellonemertida 

Phylum Acanthocephala Rudolphi 1808 Acanthocephala 

Class Echinorhynchidea Cobbold 1879 Echinorhynchea 

Order Palaeacanthocephala Meyer 1931 Palaeacanthocephalida 

Order Archiacanthocephala Meyer 1931 Archiacanthocephalida 

Order Eoacanthocephala Van Cleave 1936 Eoacanthocepdalida 

Suborder Gyracanthocephala Van Cleave 

1936 Gyracanthocephalina 

Suborder Neoacanthocepliala Van Cleave 

1936 Neoacanthocephalina 

Series Coelomocoela Lankester 1900 Coelomocoela 

Subseries Prosopygia Lang Prosopyga 

Subseries Aschelminthes Grobben 1909 Aschelmintha 

Phylum Rotatoria Lamarck 1816 Rotatoria 

Class Seisonidea Plate 1886 Seisonidea 

Class Belloidea Hudson & Gosse 1889 Belloidea 

Class Monogononta Ehrenberg 1832 Monogonontea 

Order Plioma Hudson & Gosse 1889 Pliomida 

Order Flosculariacae Harring 1913 Floscularida 

Order Collothecacae Harring 1913 Coilothecida 


Phylum Gastrotricha Metchnikof 1865 Gastrotricha 

Order Macrodasyoidea Zelinka 1889 Macrodasyida 

Order Chaetonotoidea Zelinka 1883 Chaetonotida 

Phylum Echinodera (Kinorhyncha Leuckart 1854) . . . Echinodera 

Phylum Nematomorpha Potts 1908 Xematomorpha 

Class Gordididea Orthepp 1924 Gordiacea 

Class Nectonematoidea Rauther 1930 Nectonematidea 

Phylum Nematoda Rudolphi 1808 Nemata Cobb, 1919 

Class Phasmidia Chitwood and Chitwood 1933 Phasmidea 

Order Rhabditida Chitwood 1933 Rhabditida 

Suborder Rhabditata Chitwood 1933 Rhabditina 

Suborder Ascaridata Skrjabin 1915 Ascaridina 

Suborder Strongylata Railliet & Henry 

1913 Strongylina 

Order Spirurida Chitwood 1933 Spirurida 

Suborder Spirurata Raillett and Henry 

1913 Spirurina 

Suborder Camallanata Chitwood 1936 Camallanina 

Class Aphasmidia Chitwood and Chitwood 1933 Aphasmidea 

Order Enoplida Chitwood 1933 Enoplida 

Suborder Enoplata Filipjev 1929 Enoplina 

Suborder Dorylaimata Chitwood 1933 Dorylaimina 

Suborder Dioctophymata Skrjabin 1923 Dioctophymatina 

Order Chromadorida Chitwood 1933 Chromadorida 

Suborder Monhysterata Filipjev 1929 Monhysterina 

Suborder Desmoscolecata Filipjev 1929 Desmoscolecina 

Suborder Chromadorata Filipjev 1929 Chromadorina 

Phylum Tardigrada Spallanzani 1776 Tardigrada 

Class Heterotardigrada Marcus 1927 Heterotardigradea 

Order Arthrotardigrada Marcus 1927 Arthrotardigradida 

Order Echiniscoidea Richters 1926 Echiniscida 

Class Eutardigrada Richters 1926 Eutardigradea 

Phylum Chaetognatha Leuckart 1854 Chaetognatha 

Phylum Bryozoa Ehrenberg 1831 Bryozoa 

Class Entoprocta Nitsche 1869 Entoproctea 

Class Ectoprocta Nitsche 1869 Entoproctea 

Subclass Gymnolaemata Allman 1856 Gymnolaemia 

Order Ctenostomata Busk 1852 Ctenostomida 

Order Cyclostomata Busk 1852 Cyclostomida 

Suborder Tubipora Hagenow 1851 Tubiporina 

Suborder Cerioporina Hagenow 1851 Cerioporina 

Suborder Ceramoporoidea Bassler 1913 Ceramoporina 

Suborder Hederelloidea Bassler 1934 Hederellina 

Order Trepostomata Ulrich 1883 Trepostomida 

Order Cryptostomata Vine 1883 Cryptostomida 

Order Cheilostomata Busk 1852 Cheilostomida 

Suborder Anasca Eevinsen 1909 Anascina 

Suborder Ascophora Lcvinsen 1909 Ascophorina 

Subclass Phylactolaemata Allman 1856 Phylactulacmia 


Phylum Brachiopoda Cuvier 1802 Brachiopoda 

Order Palaeotremata Thompson 1927 Paleotrematida 

Order Atremata Beecher 1891 Atrematida 

Order Neotremata Beecher 1891 Neotrematida 

Order Protrcmata Beecher 1891 Protrematida 

Order Telotremata Beecher 1891 Telotrematida 

Phylum Pterobranchia Lankester 1877 Pterobrancha 

Phylum Enteropncusta Gegenbaur 1870 Enteropneusta 

Class Balanogiossida Delle Chiaje 1820 Balanoglossea 

Phylum Echinodermata Laske 1778 Echinodermata 

Subphylum Pelmatozoa Leuckart 1848 Pelmatozoa 

Class *Cystoidea von Buch 1844 *Cystoidea 

Order *Amphoridea Haeckel 1896 *Amphoroida 

Order *Rhombifera Zittel 1879 *Rhombiferida 

Order *Diploporita Zittel 1879 *Dip]oporida 

Order *Aporita Zittel 1879 *Aporida 

Order *Edrioasteroida Billings 1858 *Edrioasterida 

Class *Blastoidea Say 1825 *Blastoidea 

Order *Protoblastoida Bather 1899 *Protoblastida 

Order *Eublastoida Bather 1899 *Eublastida 

Class Crinoidea Miller 1821 Crinoidea 

Order *Camerata Wachsmuth and Springer 

1885 *Camerida 

Order *Adunata Bather 1899 *Adunida 

Order Flexibilia Zittel 1879 Flexibilida 

Suborder *Sagenocrinida Springer 1926 *Sagenocrinina 

Suborder Taxocrinida Springer 1926 Taxocrinina 

Order *Inadunata Wachsmuth and Springer 

1885 *Inadunida 

Suborder *Larvi{ormia Wachsmuth and 

Springer 1885 *Larvina 

Suborder *Fistulata Wachsmuth and 

Springer 1885 *Fistulina 

Order Articulata, Miller 1821 Articulatida 

Suborder Bourgueticrinida H. L. Clark 

^Iss Bourgueticrinina 

Suborder Pentacrinida Claus 1868 Pentacrinina 

Suborder Holopida Haeckel 1896 Holopina 

Order Comatulida (Parks 1891) A. H. Clark 

1908 Comatulida 

Suborder Oligophreata A. H. Clark 1908 Oligophreina 

Suborder Macrophreata A. H. Clark 1908 Macrophreina 

Subphylum Asterozoa Leuckart 1848 Asterozoa 

Class Asteroidea Burmeister 1837 Asterea 

Order Phanerozonia Sladen 1889 Phanerozonida 

Order Spinulosa Perrier 1894 Spinulosida 

Order Forcipulata Perrier 1894 Forcipulatida 

Class Ophiuroidea Norman 1865 Ophiurea 

Subclass *Aegophiurida Matsumoto 1915 *AcgopIiiuria 

Order *Lysophiurida Matsumoto 1913 *Lysophiurida 


Subclass Myophiurida Matsumoto 1915 Myophiuria 

Order *Ophiocystiida H. L. Clark Mss *Ophiocystiida 

Order *Aganasterida H. L. Clark Mss *Aganasterida 

Order Phrynophiurida Matsumoto 1915 Phrynophiurida 

Order Laemophiurida Matsumoto 1915 Laemophurida 

Order Gnathophiurida Matsumoto 1915 Gnathophurida 

Order Chilophiurida Matsumoto 1915 Chilophiurida 

Subphylum Echinozoa Leuckart 1848 Echinozoa 

Class Echinoidea Bromi 1860 : Echinoea 

Order *Bothriocidaroida Duncan 1889 Bothn'ocidarida 

Order Cidaroida Duncan 1889 Cidarida 

Order Centrechinoida Jackson 1912 Centrechinoida 

Suborder Aulodonta Jackson 1912 Aulodontina 

Suborder Stirodonta Jackson 1912 Stirodontina 

Suborder Camarodonta Jackson 1912 Camarodontina 

Order Exocycloida Jackson 1912 Exocycloida 

Suborder Holectypina Gregory 1900 Holectypina 

Suborder Echinoneina Hawkins 1925 Echinoneina 

Suborder Clypeastrina Gregory 1900 Clypeastrina 

Suborder Nucleolitina Hawkins 1925 Nucleolitina 

Suborder Cassidulina Hawkins 1925 Cassidulina 

Suborder Urechinina H. L. Clark 1925 Urechinina 

Suborder Spatangina Jackson 1912 Spatangina 

Order Plesiocidaroida Jackson 1912 Plesiocidarida 

Order Echinocystoida Jackson 1912 Echinocystina 

Order Perichoechinoida Jackson 1912 Periechoechinida 

Class Holothurioidea Semper 1868 Holothurea 

Order Dendrochirota MacBride 1909 Dendrochirotida 

Order Elasipoda Theel 1882 Elasipodida 

Order Aspidochirota MacBride 1909 Aspidochirotida 

Order Molpadonia Ekman 1925 Molpadonida 

Order Apoda Lampert 1885 Apodida 

Phylum Annelida Lamarck 1809 Annelida 

Class Archiannelida Hatschek 1878 Archiannelidea 

Class Polychaeta Grube 1850 Polychaetea 

Subclass Phanerocephala Benham 1894 Phanerocephalia 

Order Nereidiformia Benham 1894 Nereiida 

Order Spioniformia Soderstrom 1900 Spioniida 

Order Terebelliformia Benham 1894 Terebeilida 

Order Capitelliformia Benham 1894 Capitellida 

Order Scoleciformia Benham 1894 Scolecida 

Subclass Cryptocephala Benham 1894 Cryptocephalia 

Order Sabelliformia Benham 1894 Sabellida 

Order Hermelliformia Benham 1894 Hermellida 

Class Myzostoma Graff 1884 Mysostomea 

Class Oligochaeta Grube 1850 Oligochaetca 

Subclass Archioligochaeta Michaclsen 1921 Archioligochactia 

Subclass Neoligochaeta Michaelsen 1921 Neoligochaetia 

Class Hirudinea Lamarck 1818 Hirndinea 

Order Rhynchobdellida Blanchard 1887 RhyndioI)dellida 

[12 1 

Order Gnathul)(iellicla X'aillant 1890 Gnathobdellida 

Order Pharyngobdellida Johansson 1913 

Class Echiurida Savigny 1817 Ecliiurea 

Phylum Gephyrca Quatrefages 1866 Gcphyra 

Class Priapulida Savigny 1817 Priapulidea 

Class Sipunculoidea Quatrefages 1866 Sipunculidea 

Phylum Onychophora Grube 1851 Onychophora 

Phylum Arthropoda Siebold and Stannius 1845 Arthropoda 

Subphylum *Trilobita Schlotheim 1820 *TriIobita 

Class *Hypoparia Beecher 1897 *Hypoparea 

Class *Opisthoparia Beecher 1897 *Opisth()parea 

Class *Proparia Beecher 1897 * Pruparea 

Subphylum Chelicerata Chelicerata 

Class Merostomata Woodward 1878 Merostomatea 

Order *Eurypterida Burmeister 1843 *Eurypterida 

Order *Synxiphosura Packard 1885 *Synxiphosurida 

Order Xiphosura Latreille 1806 Xiphosurida 

Class Pycnogonida Latreille 1804 Pycnogonidea 

Order Colosscndeomorpha Cole 1905 Colossendeomorphida 

Order Nymphonomorpha Pocock 1904 Nymphonomorphida 

Order Ascorhynchomorpha Pocock 1904 Ascorhynchomorphida 

Order Pycnogonomorpha Pocock 1904 Pycnogonomorphida 

Class Arachnida Lamarck 1815 Arachnidea 

Order Scorpionida Latreille 1810 Scorpionida 

Order Palpigrada Thorell 1888 Palpigradida 

Order Pedipalpi Latreille 1806 Pedipalpida 

Suborder Uropygi Thorell 1882 Uropygina 

Suborder Amblypygi Thorell 1883 Amblypigina 

Order Solpugida Sundevall 1833 Solpugida 

Order *Anthracomarti Karsch & Scudder *Anthracomartida 

Order Phalangida Latreille 1802 Phalangida 

Suborder Cyphophthalmi Simon 1879 Cyphophthalmina 

Suborder Laniatores Thorell 1876 Laniatorina 

Suborder Palpatores Thorell 1876 Palpatorina 

Order Chelonethida Duges 1834 Chelonethida 

Order Acarina Nitzsch 1818 Acarinida 

Suborder Notostigmata With Notostigmina 

Suborder Eupodoidea Banks 1894 Eupodina 

Suborder Trombidoidea Banks 1894 Trombidina 

Suborder Hydrachnoidea Banks 1894 Hydrachnina 

Suborder Ixodoidea Leach 1815 Lxodina 

Suborder Parasitoidea Banks 1915 Parasitina 

Suborder Holothyroidea Reuter Holothyrodina 

Suborder Oribatoidea Banks 1894 Oribatina 

Suborder Sarcoptoidea Banks 1915 Sarcoptina 

Suborder Demodicoidea Banks 1894 Demodicina 

Suborder Linguatulida Thorell 1876 Linguatulina 

Order Ricinulida Latreille 1802 Ricinulida 

Order Araneida Lamarck 1818 Araneida 

Suborder Liphistiomorphae Liphistiomorphina 

Suborder Mygalomorphae Banks 1905 Mygalomorphina 


Suborder Hypochilomorphae Petrunkevitch 

1933 Hypochilomorphina 

Suborder Dipneumonomorphae Dipneumonomorphina 

Suborder Apneumonomorphae Apneumonomorphina 

Subphylum Mandibulata McLeay 1821 Mandibulata 

'^ Subphylum Crustacea Pennant 1777 Crustacea 

Class Eucrustacea Kingsley 1894 Eucrustacea 

Subclass Branchiopoda Lamarck 1801 Branchiopodia 

Order Anostraca Sars 1867 Anostracida 

Order Notostraca Sars 1867 Notostracida 

Order Conchostraca Sars 1867 Conchostracida 

Order Leptostraca Claus 1872 Leptostracida 

Order Cladocera Latreille 1829 Cladocerida 

Suborder Calyptomera Sars 1865 Calyptomerina 

Suborder Gymnomera Sars 1865 Gymnomerina 

Subclass Ostracoda Latreille 1802 Ostracodia 

Order Myodocopa Sars 1866 Myodocopida 

Order Cladocopa Sars 1866 Cladocopida 

Order Podocopa Sars 1865 Podocopida 

Order Platycopa Sars 1866 Platycopida 

Subclass Copepoda Latreille 1831 Copepodia 

Order Eucopepoda Claus 1875 Eucopepida 

Suborder Calanoida Dana 1852 Calanina 

Suborder Cyclopoida Burmeister 1834 Cyclopina 

Suborder Notodelphyoida Sars 1903 Notodelphyina 

Suborder Monstrilloida Sars 1903 Monstrillina 

Suborder Caligoida Claus 1885 Caligina 

Suborder Lerneopodida Stebbing 1910 Lernaeopodina 

Order Branchiura Burmeister 1834 Branchiurida 

Suborder Arguloida Wilson 1932 Argulina 

Subclass Cirripedia Burmeister 1834 Cirripedia 

Order Thoracica Darwin 1854 Thoracida 

Suborder Turrilepadomorpha Clarke 1896^ Turrilepadomorphina 

Suborder Lepadomorpha Darwin 1852 Lepadomorphina 

Suborder Verrucomorpha Darwin 1854 Verrucomorphina 

Suborder Balanomorpha Darwin 1854 Belanomorphina 

Order Ascothoracida Lacaze-Duthiers 1883 Ascothoracida 

Order Apoda Darwin 1854 Apodida 

Order Rhizocephala Fritz ^liiller 1862 Rhizocephalida 

■ Subclass Malacostraca Latreille 1802 Malacostracia 

Series Leptostraca Claus 1880 Leptostracia 

Division Phyllocarida Packard 1879 Phyllocarida 

Order Nebaliacea Clarke 1882 Nebalida 

Order *Rhinocarina Clarke 1882 *Rhinocarida 

Order *Ceratiocarina Clarke 1882 *Ceratiocarida 

Order *Hymenocarina Clarke 1882 *Hymenocarida 

Division *Nahecarida- Broili 1928 *Naliecarida 

Series Eumalacostraca Grobben 1892 Eumaloctistracia 

^Called Machaerida by Withers (1926), who suggests that these animals are related to annelids. 


Division Syncarida Packard 1886 Syncarida 

Order Anaspidacoa Thomson 1892 Anaspida 

Division Pericarida Caiman 1904 Pericarida 

Order Mysidacea Boas 1883 Mysidacida 

Order Cumacea Kroyer 1846 Cumacida 

Order Tanaidacea Hansen 1895 Tanaida 

■ Order Isopo<ia Latreille 1817 Isopodida 

Suborder Flabellifera Sars 1882 Flahelliferina 

Suborder Valvifera Sars 1882 Valviferina 

Suborder Asellota Latreille 1806 Asellina 

Suborder Phreatoicidea Stebbing 1893 Phreatocina 

Suborder Epicaridea Latreille 1831 Epicarina 

Suborder Oniscoidea Sars 1882 Oniscina 

Order Amphipoda Latreille 1816 Amphipodida 

Suborder Gammaridea Dana 1852 Gammarina 

Suborder Hyperiidea Dana 1852 Hyperiina 

Suborder Caprellidea Dana 1852 Caprellina 

Suborder Ingolfiellidea Hansen 1903 Ingolfiellina 

Division Eucarida Caiman 1904 Eucarida 

Order Euphausiacea Boas 1883 Euphausiida 

t- Order Decapoda Latreille 1802 Decapodida 

Suborder Natantia Boas 1879 Natantina 

Suborder Reptantia Boas 1879 Reptantina 

Division Hoplocarida Caiman 1904 Hoplocarida 

Order Stomatopoda Latreille 1817 Stomatopodida 

Superclass Progoneata Pocock 1893 Progoneata 

Class Pauropoda Lubbock 1866 Pauropodea 

Class Symphyla Ryder 1880 Symphylea 

Class Diplopoda Latreille 1802 Diplopodea 

Subclass Chilognatha Leach 1814 Chilognathia 

Superorder Opisthandria Verhoeff 1894 Opisthandrida 

Order Limacomorpha Pocock 1894 Limacomorphida 

Order Oniscomorpha Pocock 1887 Oniscomorphida 

Suborder Glomeridia Brandt 1883 Glomerina 

Suborder Sphaerotheria Brandt 1883 Sphaerotherina 

Superorder Proterandria Verhoeff 1894 Proterandrina 

Order Polydesmoidea C. Koch 1847 Polydesmida 

Suborder Polydesmidea Attems 1914 Polydesmina 

Suborder Strongylosomidea Attems 1914 Strongylosomina 

Order Nematomorpha Verhoeff 1913" Nematophotida 

Suborder Chordeumoidea C. Koch 1847 Chordeumina 

Suborder Stemmiuloidea Cook 1895 Stemmiulina 

Suborder Striaroidea Cook 1896 Striarina 

Suborder Lysiopetaloidea Wood 1865 Lysiopetalina 

Order Juliformia Saussure & Humbert 1872 Julida 

Sul)order Juloidea Meinert 1868 Julina 

Suborder Spiroboloidea Silvestri 1896 Spirobolina 

Suborder Spirostreptoidcae Pocock 1894 Spirostreptina 

Order Colobgnatha Brandt 1834 Colobgnathida 

^Nematomorpha Potts 1908 has ht-«-n used fi.r a group <■{ rtpundworms (p. 10). 


Superclass Opisthogoneata Pocock 1893 Opisthogonea 

Class Chilopoda Latrcille 1802 Chilopodea 

Subclass Epimorpha Haase 1880 Epimorphia 

Order Geophilomorpha Geophilomorphida 

Order Scolopendromorpha Newport 1844 Scolopendromorphida 

Subclass Anamorpha Haase 1880 Anamorphia 

Order Lithobiomorpha Pocock 1895 Lithobiomorphida 

Order Scutigeromorpha Brandt 1840 Scutigeromorphida 

Suborder Lithobioidea Latzell 1880 Lithobina 

Suborder Craterostigmomorphinae 

Pocock 1902 CraterostigTuomorphina 

Class Myrientomata Berlese 1909 Myrientomatea 

Order Protura Silvestri 1907 Proturida 

'' Class Insecta Linnaeus 1 758 Insectea 

Subclass Apterj'gota Lang 1883 Apterygotia 

Order Thysanura Lubbock 1869 Thysanurida 

Order Entotrophi Grassi 1890 Entotropliida 

Order Collembola Lubbock 1869 Collembolida 

Subclass Pterygota Leng 1888 Pterygotia 

Superorder Orthopteroidea Handlirsch 1903 Orthopteria 

Order Grylloblattodea Walker 1914 Grylloblattida 

Order Orthoptera Latreille 1796 Orthopterida 

Suborder Tettigoniodea Kary 1903 Tettigonina 

Suborder Acridodoa Burmeister 1829 Acridina 

Order Phasmitodea Leach 1815 Phasmatida 

Order Embiodea Kusnesow 1903 Embioida IX^'-i'" 

Order Diploglossata Saussure 1879 Diploglossida 

Order Dermaptera Degeer 1773 Dermapterida 

Superorder Blattaeformia Handlirsch Blattaenia 

Order Blattariae Latreille 1810 Blattida 

Order Mantodea Burmeister 1829 Mantida 

Superorder Psocoidea Leach 1918 Psocia 

Suborder Isoptera Brulle 1832 Isopterina 

Suborder Zoraptera Silvestri 1913 Zorapterina 

Order Corrodentia (Psocoptera) 

Burmeister 1839 Corrodentida ( Psocida ) 

Order Mallophaga Nitzsch 1818 Mallophagida 

Order Anoplura Leach 1815 Anoplurida 

Superorder Hemipteroidea Linnaeus 1758 Hemipteria 

Order Thysanoptera Haliday 1836 Thysaimpterida 

Order Heteroptera Latreille 1825 Heteropterida 

Order Homoptera Latreille 1817 Homopterida 

Suborder Auchenorrhyncha Dumeril 180.') Auchenorrhynciiina 

Suborder Sternorrhyncha Amyot et 

Serville 1843 Sternorrhyncliina 

Suborder Coleorrhynclia I! rues and 

Melander 1932 Cole(irrli\ nchina 

Superorder Pseudoneuropteroidea 

Gerstaecker 1856 Pseudoneuropteria 

Order Odonata Fahricus 1792 Odonatida 

(Vder Ephemeroptera Haeckel 1896 Ephemerida 

[ 16] 

Order Plecoptera f^jurmeister 1835 Pkcdptcrida 

Superorder Coleopteroidca Handlirscli 1906 Coleopteria 

Order Coleoptera Linnaeus 1758 Coleopterida 

Suborder Adephaga Leconte and Home 

1883 Adephagina 

Suborder Polyphaga Emery 1885 Polyphagina 

Order Strepsiptera Kirby 1813 Strepsipterida 

Superorder Neuropteroidea Handlirscb 1903 Neuroptcria 

Order Megaloptera Latreille 1802 Mcgalopterida 

Order Rhaphidiodea Aclque 1897 Rhaphidida 

Order Neuroptera Linnaeus 1758 Neuropterida 

Order Mecoptera Packard 1886 Mecopterida 

Order Trichoptera Kirby 1813 Trichopterida 

Order Lepidoptera Linnaeus 1758 Lepidopterida 

Suborder Jugatae Comstock 1892 Jugatina 

Suborder Frenatae Comstock 1892 Frenatina 

Suborder Rhapalocera Boisdurk 1836 Rhopalocerina 

Superorder Hymenopteroidea Linnaeus 1758 Hymenopteria 

Ordef Hymenoptera Linnaeus 1758 Hymenopterida 

Suborder Chalastogastra Konow 1897 Chalastogastrina 

Suborder CHstogastra Konow 1905 Clistogastrina 

Superorder Dipteroidea Linnaeus 1905 Dipteria 

Order Diptera Linnaeus 1758 Dipterida 

Suborder Nematocera Brauer 1883 Nematocerina 

Suborder Brachycera Macquart 1834 Brachycerina 

Order Siphonaptera Latreille 1825 Siphonapterida 

Order *Palaeodictyoptera Goldenberg Palaeodictyopterida 

Order *Protoblattoidea Handlirscb 1906 Protoblattida 

Order *Protoephemeroidea Protoepbemerida 

Order *Protodonata Brogniart Protodonatida 

Order *Permodonata Permodonatida 

Order *Hadentomoidea Handlirscb 1906 Hadentomida 

Order *Hapalopteroidea Handlirscb 1906 Hapalopterida 

Order *Mixotermitoidea Handlirscb 1906 Mixotcrmitida 

Order *Protorthoptera HandHrsch 1906 Protortbopterida 

Order *Protohemiptera Handlirscb Protobemipterida 

Phylum Mollusca Linnaeus 1758 Mollusca 

Subphylum Isopleura Lankester Isopleura 

Class Amphineura von Ihering 1876 Amphineurea 

Order Polyplacophora Gray 1821 Polyplacophorida 

Suborder Eoplacophora Pilsbry 1892 Eoplacophorina 

Suborder Mesoplacophora Pilsbry 1892 Mesoplacophorina 

Suborder Teleoplacophora Pilsbry 1892 Teleoplacophorina 

Order Aplacophora von Ihering 1877 Aplacopborida 

Suborder Neomeniomorpba von Ihering 

1877 Neomeniomorphina 

Suborder Chaetodermomorpba von Ihering 

1S77 Chaetodermomorphina 

Subphylum Prorhipidoglossomorpha Grobben Prorhipidoglossomorpha 

Class Gastropoda Cuvier 1798 Gastropodea 

Subclass Streptoneura Spengel 1881 Streptoneuria 


Order Aspidobranchia Schweigger Aspidobranchida 

Suborder Docoglossa Troschel 1866 Docoglossina 

Suborder Rhipidoglossa Troschel 1866 Rhipidoglossina 

Order Pectinibranchia Cuvier 1817 Pectinibranchida 

Suborder Taenioglossa Troschel 1866 Taenioglossiua 

Suborder Stenoglossa Stenoglossina 

Subclass Euthyneura Spengel 1881 Euthyneuria 

Order Opisthobranchia Milne-Edwards Opisthobranchida 

Suborder Tectibranchia Cuvier 1817 Tectibranchina 

Suborder Nudibranchia Cuvier 1817 Nudibranchina 

Order Pulmonata Ehrenberg 1831 Pulmonatida 

Suborder Basommatophora A. Schmidt Basomtnatophorina 

Suborder Stylommatophora A. Schmidt Stylomatophorina 

Class Scaphopoda Bronn 1862 Scaphopodea 

Class Pelecypoda Goldfuss 1820 Pelecypodea 

Order Protobranchia Protobranchida 

Suborder Solenomyacea Swainson 1840 Solenomyacina 

Suborder Nuculacea Orbigny 1844 Nuculacina 

Order Filibranchia Filibranchida 

Suborder Anomiacea Herrmannsen 1855 Anomiacina 

Suborder Arcacea Latreille 1825 Arcacina 

Suborder Mytilacea Latreille 1825 Mytilacina 

Suborder Pectinacea Reeve 1841 Pectinacina 

Suborder Dimyacea Lamarck 1807 Dimyacina 

Order Eulamellibranchia Eulamellibranchida 

Suborder Ostracea Lamarck 1809 Ostracina 

Suborder Submytilacea Ferussac Submytilacina 

Suborder Tellinacea Lamarck 1819 Tellinacina 

Suborder Veneracea Menke 1828 Veneracina 

Suborder Cardiacea Lamarck 1809 Cardiacina 

Suborder Chamacea Geinitz 1864 Chamacina 

Suborder Myacea Menke 1828 Myacina 

Suborder Adesmacea Blainville 1824 Adesmacina 

Suborder Anatinacea Dall 1895 Anatinacina 

Order Septibranchia Latreille 1825 Septibranchida 

Subphylum Siphonopoda Haan 1825 Siphonopoda 

Class Cephalopoda Cuvier 1798 Cephalopodea 

Order Tetrabranchia Owen 1832 Tetrabranchida 

Suborder Nautiloidea Lamarck 1809 Nautiloidina 

Suborder *Ammonitoidea Haan 1825 *Ammonitina 

Order Dibranchia Owen 1832 Dibranchida 

Suborder Decapoda Leach 1817' Decapodina 

Suborder Octopoda Hasselquist 1850 Octopodina 

Phylum Chordata Chordata 

Division Acraniata \craniata 

Subphylum Tunicata Lamarck 1815 Tunicata 

Class Larvacea Herdman 1882 Larvaca (Copelata) 

Class Ascidiacea Blainville 1825 Ascidiacea 

Order Ptychobranchia Seeliger 1909 Ptychobranchida 

Order Aspiraculata Seeliger 1909 Aspiraculatida 

* Decapoila Latreille 1802 in an order of crustaceans (p. III^. 


Orckr nictyol)rancliia Seeliger 1909 Dictohranchida 

Order Krikobranchia Seeliger 1909 Krikobraiichida 

Order Pyrosomida Jones 1848 Pyrosomida 

Class Thaliacea Vander Hoeven 1850 Thaliacea 

Order Salpida Jones 1848 Salpida 

Order Doliolida Keferstein 1862 Doliolida 

Subphylum Leptocardii J. Miiller 1845 Leptocardia 

Class Amphioxi J. Miiller 1844 Ampbioxca 

Order Amphioxi J. Miiller 1844 Amphioxida 

Division Craniata Craniata 

Superclass Pisces Linnaeus 1758 Piscea 

Class Agnatha Agnathea 

Subclass *Ostracodermi Cope 1889 *Ostracodermia 

Order *Heterostraci Lankester 1868 *Heterostracida 

Order *Osteostraci Lankester 1868 *Osteostracida 

Order *Anaspida Traquair 1899 * Anaspida 

Order *Palaeospondy]oidea Sollas 1903 *Palaeospondylida 

Subclass Marsipobranchii Bonaparte 1837 Marsipobranchia 

Order Hyperotreti Miiller 1836 Hyperotretida 

Order Hyperoartii Miiller 1836 Hyperoartida 

Class Placodermi McCoy 1848 Placodermea 

Order *Arthrodira Cope 1891 *Arthrodirida 

Suborder *Acanthaspida Newberry 1889 *Acanthaspidina 

Suborder *Coccosteoidea Woodward 1891 *Coccnsteina 

Suborder *Homosteoidea Traquair 1889 *Honiosteina 

Suborder *Ptyctodontoidea Woodward 1891 *Ptyctodontina 

Order Antiarchi Cope 1885 Antiarcida 

Class Chondrichthyes J. Miiller 1846 Chondrichthea 

Order Acanthodii Owen 1860 Acanthodida 

Order Stegoselachii Stegoselachida 

Order Cladoselachii Dean 1894 Cladoselachida 

Order Pleuracanthodii Cope 1889 Pleuracanthodida 

Order Elasmobranchii Bonaparte 1832 Elasmobranchida 

Suborder Selachii Cuvier 1829 Selachina 

Suborder Batoidea Gunther 1870 Batina 

Order Rhenanida Rhenanida 

Order Bradyodonti Brad\odontida 

Order Holocephali Bonaparte 1832 Holocephalida 

Class Osteichthyes Osteichthyea 

Subclass Actinopterygii Cuvier 1828 Actinopterygia 

Order Chondrostei J. Miiller 1846 Chrondrostida 

Suborder Palaeoniscoidea Bridge 1879 Palaeoniscina 

Suborder Polypterini Bonaparte 1837 Polypterina 

Suborder Belonorhynchoidea Woodward 1890 Belonorhynchina 

Suborder Acipenseroidea Agassiz 1843 Acipenserina 

Order Holostei J. Miiller 1846 Holostida 

Suborder Semionotoidea Woodward 1890 Semionotina 

Suborder Amioidea Huxley 1861 Amioidina 

Suborder Pholidophoroidea Woodward 1890 Pholidophorina 

Order Teleostei Owen 1847 Teleostida 

Suborder Isospondyli Cope 1872 Isospondylina 


Suborder Ostariophysi Boulenger 1909 Ostariophysina 

Suborder Apodes Rafinesque 1815 Apodina 

Suborder Haplomi Cope 1872 Haplomina 

Suborder Microcyprines Reagan 1911 Microcyprina 

Suborder Percesoces Cope 1871 Percesocina 

Suborder Hemibranchii Cope 1871 Hemibranchina 

Suborder Anacanthini J. Miiller Anacanthina 

Suborder Acanthopterygii Cuvier 1828 Acanthopterygina 

Subclass Crossopterygii Huxley 1861 Crossopterygia 

Order Rhipidistia Cope 1887 Rhipidistida 

Order Coelacanthini Agassiz 1843 Coelacanthida 

Superclass Tetrapoda Williston 

Class Amphibia Linnaeus 1758 Amphibea 

Order *Labyrinthodontia Huxley 1871 Labyrinthodontida 

Suborder Ichthyostegalia Save-Soderbergh 

1934 Ichthyostegalina 

Suborder *Embolomeri Cope 1880 Embolomerina 

Suborder *Rhachitomi Cope 1882 Rhachitomina 

Suborder *Stereospondyli Fraas 1889 Sterospondylina 

Order *Lepospondyli Zittel 1887 Lepospondylida 

Suborder *Micramphibia Micramphibia 

Suborder *Lysorophia Cope Lysorophina 

Suborder *Aistopoda Miall 1890 Aistopodina 

Suborder Nectridia Miall 1890 Nectridina 

Order *Phyllospondyli Credner 1881 Phyllospondylida 

Order Caudata Oppel 181 1 Caudatida 

Suborder Crj'ptobranchoidea Dunn 1922 Cryptobranchina 

Suborder Ambystomoidea Noble 1931 Ambystomina 

Suborder Salamandroidea Cope 1890 Salamandrina 

Suborder Proteida Cope 1866 Proteina 

Suborder Meantes Linnaeus 1766 Meantina 

Order Salientia Laurenti 1768 Salientida 

Suborder Amphicoela Noble 1931 Amphicoelina 

Suborder Opisthocoela Nicholls 1916 Opisthocoelina 

Suborder Anomocoela Nicholls 1916 Anomocoelina 

Suborder Procoela Nicholls 1916 Procoelina 

Suborder Diplasiocoela Nicholls 1916 Diplasiocoelina 

Order Apoda Oppel 1811 Apodida 

Class Reptilia Laurenti 1768 Reptilea 

Subclass Anapsida Osborn 1918 Anapsidea 

Order *Cotylosauria Cope 1880 *Cotylosaurida 

Suborder *Seymouriamorpha Watson 1917 *Seyinouriamorphina 

Suborder *Diadectomorpha Case 1911 *Diadectomorphina 

Suborder *Captorhinomorpha Watson 1917 *Captorhin(ini(irpliina 

Order Chelonia Owen 1842 (Testudinata) 

(Oppel 1811) Chelonida ( Tistudinida) 

Suborder Eunotosauria Watson 1914 Eunotosaurina 

Suborder Amphichelydia Lydekker 1889 Amphichclina 

Suborder Pleurodira Cope 1869 Pleurodirina 

Suborder Cryptodira Cope 1869 Crytodirina 

[20 1 

Subclass *Ichtlity()pterygia Owen 1860 *rclitliyoi)terygia 

Order *Mesosauria Cope 1886 *Mesosaurida 

Order *Ichthyosauria Blaiiiville 1835 *Ichthyosaurida 

Subclass *Synaptosauria Williston 1912 *Synapti)sauria 

Order *Proterosauria Seeley 1871 *Proterosaurida 

Order *Sauropterygia Owen 1859 *Sauropterygida 

Suborder *Trachelosauria Broili 1917 *Trachelosaurina 

Suborder *Tanysitrachelia Preyer 1931 *Tanysitraclielina 

Suborder *Notbosauria Deecke 1886 *Nothosaurina 

Suborder *Plesiosauria Andrews 1895 *Plesiosaurina 

Suborder *Placodontia Meyer 1863 *Placodontina 

Subclass Lepidosauria Zittel 1890 Lepidosauria 

Order *Eusuchia Huxley 1875 *Eusucliida 

Order Rhynchocephalia Gunther 1886 Rhynchocephalida 

Order Eosuchia Broom 1714 Eosuchida 

Order Squamata Oppel 181 1 , Squamatida 

Suborder Lacertilia Cuvier 1834 Lacertilina 

Suborder Ophidia Brongriart 1799 Ophidida 

Subclass *Archosauria Cope 1891 *Archosauria 

Order *Thecodontia Owen 1860 *Thecodontida 

Suborder *Pseudosuchia Cope 1891 *Pseudosuchina 

Suborder *Phytosauria Lydekker 1888 *Phytosaurina 

Order Crocodilia Wagler 1830 Crocodilida 

Suborder *Protosuchia Mook 1934 *Protosuchina 

Suborder Mesosuchia Mook 1934 Mesosuchina 

Suborder Eusuchia Mook 1934 Eusuchina 

Suborder Thallatosuchia Mook 1934 Thallatosuchina 

Order *Pterosauria Kaup 1834 *Pterosaurida 

Suborder *Rhamphorhynchoidii Abel 1919 *Rhamphorhynchina 

Suborder *Pterodactyloidea Seeley 1866 *Pterodactyliiia 

Order *Saurischia Seeley 1888 *Saurischida 

Suborder *Theropoda Marsh 1881 *Theropodina 

Suborder *Sauropoda Marsh 1878 *Sauropodina 

Order *Ornithischia Seeley 1888 *Ornithiscbida 

Suborder *Ornithopoda Cope 1869 *Ornithopodina 

Suborder *Stegosauria Cope 1880 *Stegosaurina 

Suborder *Ankylosauria Brown 1908 *Ankylosaurina 

Suborder *Ceratopsia Zittel 1890 *Ceratopsina 

Subclass *Synapsida Osborn 1903 *Synapsidia 

Order *Pelycosauria Cope 1878 *Pelycosaurida 

Order *Therapsida Broom 1905 *Therapsida 

Suborder *Anningiamorpha Broom 1927 *Anningiamorphina 

Suborder *Dromaesauria Matthew & Brown 

1922 *Dromaesaunna 

Suborder *Dinocephalia Broom 1914 *Dinocephalina 

Suborder *Dicynodontia Owen 1859 *Dicynodontina 

Suborder *Theriodontia Owen 1876 *Thenodontina 

Suborder *Ictidosauria Broom 1912 *Ictidosaurina 

Suborder *Protodonta Osborn 1887 *Protodontina 


Class Aves Linnaeus 1758 Avea 

Subclass *Archaeornithes Cope 1898 *Archaeornithia 

Order *Archaeopterygi formes Fiirbringer 

1888 *Archaeopterygida 

Subclass Neornithes Rej'nolds 1897 Neornithia 

Superorder *Odontognathae Marsh 1873 *Odontognatha 

Order *Hesperomithiformes Marsh 1872 *Hesperornithida 

Order *Ichthyornithiformes Marsh 1873 *Ichthyornithida 

Superorder Palaeognathae Pycraft 1910 Palaeognathea 

Order Struthioni formes Haeckel 1866 Struthionida 

Order Rhei formes Newton 1884 Rheida 

Order Casuariiformes Sclater 1880 Casuariida 

Order Dinornithidae Stejneger 1884 Dinornithida 

Order Aepyornithiformes Newton 1884 Aepyornithida 

Order Apterygi formes Sclater 1880 Apterygida 

Order Tinamiformes Gray 1840 Tinamida 

Superorder Impennes lUiger 1811 Impennea 

Order Sphenisci formes Viellot 1818 Spheniscida 

Superorder Neognathae Pycraft 1896 Neognathea 

Order Gaviiformes Brandt 1839 Gaviida 

Order Procellariiformes Wagner 1843 Procellariida 

Order Pelecani formes Stejneger 1885 Pelecanida 

Suborder Phaethontes Gray 1840 Phaethontina 

Suborder Pelecani Owen 1856 Pelecanina 

Suborder Fregatae Vigors 1830 Fregatina 

Suborder Odontopteryges Lydekker 1892 Odontopterygina 

Order Ciconiiformes Owen 1832 Ciconiida 

Suborder Ardeae Wagler 1830 Ardina 

Suborder Balaenicipites Balaenicipitina 

Suborder Ciconiae Bonaparte 1834 Ciconina 

Suborder Phoenicopteri Bonaparte 1831 Phoenicopterina 

Order Anseriformes Swainson 1837 Anserida 

Suborder Anhimae Anhimina 

Suborder Anseres Linnaeus 1735 Anserina 

Order Falconi formes Naumann 1822 Falconida 

Suborder Cathartidae Lafresnaye 1829 Cathartina 

Suborder Falcones Naumann 1822 Falconina 

Order Galliformes Latreille 1825 Gallida 

Suborder Galli Dumeril 1806 Gallina 

Suborder Opisthocomi Gray 1840 Opisthocomina 

Order Gruiformes Stejneger 1885 Gruida 

Suborder Mesoenatides Lowe 1924 Mesoenatidina 

Suborder Turnices Gray 1840 Turnicina 

Suborder Grues Owen 1856 Gruina 

Suborder Heliornithes Gray 1840 Heliornithina 

Suborder Rhynocheti Rhynochetina 

Suborder Eurypygae Eurypygina 

Suborder Phororhaci Lydekker 1893 Phororhacina 

Suborder Cariamae Cariamina 

Su1)ordcr Otides Wagler 1830 Otidina 

Order Diatrymif ormes Cope 1877 Diatrymida 

I ?7 I 

Order Charadrii formes Furl)ringer 1888 Charadriida 

Suborder Charadrii Huxley 1867 Charadriiiia 

Suborder Lari Bonaparte 1857 Lariiia 

Suborder Alcae Stejneger 1885 Alcina 

Order Colutnbi formes Bonaparte 1853 Columbida 

Suborder Pterocletes Knowlton 1909 Pterocletina 

Suborder Columbae Bonaparte 1857 ' Columbina 

Order Psittaci formes Illiger 1811 Psittacida 

Order Cuculiformes Stejineger 1884 Cuculida 

Suborder Musophagi Sharpe 1891 Musophagina 

Suborder Cuculi Sharpe 1891 Cuculina 

Order Strigiformes Wagler 1830 Strigida 

Order Caprimulgiformes Stejneger 1885 Caprimulgida 

Suborder Steatornithes Bonaparte 1850 Steaornithina 

Suborder Caprimulgai Bonaparte 1840 Caprimulgina 

Order Micropodi formes Lucas 1889 Micropodida 

Suborder Micropodi Micropodina 

Suborder Trochili Lesson 1831 Trochilina 

Order Coliiformes Swainson 1837 Coliida 

Order Trogoniformes Swainson 1831 Trogonida 

Order Coracii formes Seebohm 1880 Coraciida 

Suborder Alcedines Bonaparte 1831 Alcedina 

Suborder Meropes Bonaparte 1831 Meropina 

Suborder Coracii Gray 1845 Coracina 

Suborder Bucerotes Fiirbringer 1888 Bucerotina 

Order Piciformes Sharpe 1891 Picida 

Suborder Galbulae Fiirbringer 1888 Galbulina 

Suborder Pici Wagler 1830 Picina 

Order Passeriformes Nitzsch 1829 Passerida 

Suborder Eurylaimi Gadow 1893 Eurylaimina 

Suborder Tyranni Swainson 1837 Tyrannina 

Suborder Menurae Stejneger 1885 Menurina 

Suborder Passeres Linnaeus 1758 Passerina 

Class Mammalia Linnaeus 1758 Mammalea 

Subclass Prototheria Gill 1872 Prototheria 

Order Monotremata Tiedemann 1808 Monotremida 

Subclass *Allotheria Marsh 1880 *AlIotheria 

Order *Multituberculata Cope 1884 *Multituberculida 

Suborder *Tritylodontoidea Simpson 1928 *TrityIodontina 

Suborder *Plagiaulacoidea Simpson 1928 *Plagiaulacina 

Order *Triconodonta Osborn, 1888 *Triconodontida 

Subclass Theria Parker & Haswell 1897 Theria 

Superorder *Pantotheria Marsh 1880 *Pantotherea 

Order *Pantotheria Marsh 1880 *Pantotherida 

Order *Symmetrodonta Simpson 1925 *Symmetrodontida 

Superorder Metatheria Huxley 1880 Metatherea 

Order Marsupialia Illiger 181 1 Marsupialida 

Superorder Eutheria Gill 1872 Eutherea 

Order Insectivora Gray 1827 Insectivorida 

Order *Tillodontia Marsh 1875 *Tillodontida 

Order Dermoptera Illiger 1811 Dermopterida 


Order Chiroptera Blumenbach 1779 Chiropterida 

Suborder Megachiroptera Dobson 1875 Megachiropterina 

Suborder Microchiroptera Dobson 1875 Microchiropterina 

Order Primates Linnaeus 1758 Primatida 

Suborder Lemuroidea Mivart 1864 Lemurina 

Suborder Tarsioidea Weber 1928 Tarsina 

Suborder Anthropoidea Mivart 1864 Anthropoidina 

Order *Taeniodonta Cope 1876 *Taeniodontida 

Order Edentata Vicq-d'Azyr 1792 Edentatida 

Suborder *Palaeanodonta Matthew 1918 *Palaenodontina 

Suborder Xenarthra Gill 1884 Xenarthrina 

Suborder Loricata Owen 1882 Loricatina 

Suborder Pholidota Weber 1904 Pholidotina 

Order Rodentia Vicq-d'Azyr 1792 Rodentida 

Order Lagomorpha Brandt 1859 Lagomorphida 

Order Carnivora Vicq-d'Azyr 1792 Carnivorida 

Suborder *Creodonta Cope 1875 *Creodontina 

Suborder Fissipedia Fischer von Waldheim 

1813 Fissipedina 

Suborder Pinnipedia Storr 1780 Pinnipedina 

Order Cetacea Blumenbach 1779 Cetacida 

Suborder *Archaeoceti Flower 1883 *Archaeocetina 

Suborder Odontoceti Flower 1864 Odontocetina 

Suborder Mysticeti Flower 1864 Mysticetina 

Order *Condylarthra Cope 1881 *Condylarthrida 

Order Tubulidentata Huxley 1872 Tubulidentida 

Order *Amblypoda Cope 1875 *Amblypodida 

Order *Dinocerata Marsh 1872 *Dinoceratida 

Order *Notoungulata Roth 1903 *Notoungulatida 

Suborder *Entelonychia Ameghino 1893 *Entelonychina 

Suborder *Astrapotheria Ameghino 1893 *Astrapotherina 

Suborder *Toxodontia Owen 1858 *Toxodontina 

Suborder *Typotheria Zittel 1893 *Typotherina 

Order *Pyrotheria Ameghino 1895 *Pyrotherida 

Order *Litopterna Ameghino 1889 *Litopternida 

Order Proboscidea Illliger 1811 Proboscida 

Order *Barytheria Andrews 1904 *Barytherida 

Order Hyracoidea Huxley 1872 Hyracida 

Order Sirenia Illiger 1811 Sirenida 

Suborder Trichechiformes Hay 1923 Trichechina 

Suborder *Desmostyiformes Hay 1923 *Desmostylina 

Order Embrithopoda Andrews 1905 Embrithopodida 

Order Perissodactyla Owen 1848 Perissodactylida 

Order Artiodactyla Owen 1848 Artiodactylida 

Suborder Bunodonta Kowalevsky 1873 Bunodontina 

Suborder *Anconodonta Matthew 1929 *Anconodontina 

Suborder Tylopoda Illiger 181 1 Tylopodina 

Suborder Pecora Linnaeus 1758 Pecorina